Happy Halloween to everybody!
What are the most horrifying Programming Languages you have came across or at least read on the Internet? Those languages that if someone come to you and ask you to Maintain or Extend a program written on them you will probably refuse or at least think twice before accepting?
Here below some of them, which I will certainly say "NO, thanks" straight away.
Malbolge is a public domain esoteric programming language invented by Ben Olmstead in 1998, named after the eighth circle of hell in Dante's Inferno, the Malebolge.
The peculiarity of Malbolge is that it was designed to be the most difficult and esoteric programming language. However, several of the tricks used to make understanding it difficult can be simplified away.
Malbolge was so difficult to understand when it arrived that it took two years for the first Malbolge program to appear. The program was not even written by a human being: it was generated by a beam search algorithm designed by Andrew Cooke and implemented in Lisp.
"Hello world" in Malbolge
(more on Malbolge in: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malbolge)
Whitespace is an esoteric programming language developed by Edwin Brady and Chris Morris at the University of Durham (also developers of the Kaya programming language). It was released on 1 April 2003 (April Fool's Day). Its name is a reference to whitespace characters. Unlike most programming languages, which ignore or assign little meaning to most whitespace characters, the Whitespace interpreter ignores any non-whitespace characters. Only spaces, tabs and linefeeds have meaning. An interesting consequence of this property is that a Whitespace program can easily be contained within the whitespace characters of a program written in another language, making the text a polyglot.
The language itself is an imperative stack-based language. The virtual machine on which the programs run has a stack and a heap. The programmer is free to push arbitrary width integers onto the stack (currently there is no implementation of floating point numbers) and can also access the heap as a permanent store for variables and data structures.
"Hello world" in Whitespace
Pink = Space and Purple = Tab
(more on Whitespace in: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whitespace_(programming_language))
The brainfuck programming language is an esoteric programming language noted for its extreme minimalism. It is a Turing tarpit, designed to challenge and amuse programmers, and is not suitable for practical use. Its name has been variously bowdlerized. The name of the language is generally not capitalized except at the start of a sentence, although it is a proper noun.
Urban Müller created brainfuck in 1993 with the intention of designing a language which could be implemented with the smallest possible compiler, inspired by the 1024-byte compiler for the FALSE programming language. Several brainfuck compilers have been made smaller than 200 bytes. The classic distribution is Müller's version 2, containing a compiler for the Amiga, an interpreter, example programs, and a readme document.
The language consists of eight commands, listed below. A brainfuck program is a sequence of these commands, possibly interspersed with other characters (which are ignored). The commands are executed sequentially, except as noted below; an instruction pointer begins at the first command, and each command it points to is executed, after which it normally moves forward to the next command. The program terminates when the instruction pointer moves past the last command.
"Hello world" in Brainfuck
(more on Brainfuck in: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainfuck)
Definitions and info of each programming language mentioned on this post as well as the hello world examples were taken from Wikipedia.org :)
If you want to know more about each of those languages and others you can find them here:
What other languages do you think can be listed here?
I was thinking about Assembler, even if for some might be easy, but for those of us that started with structured or object oriented high level languages it looks little bit cryptic.